- Sunshine may be the primary energy source on Earth and sunlight might be converted straight into electricity using solar power panels. Electricity has grown to be indispensable in daily life. It powers the machines that many us use daily.
So, what exactly are solar panel systems? Let's say you could make your own?
In this post, we're going to demonstrate an easy way of building your personal functional solar panel.
A cell is usually made of six (6) components namely the PV (photovoltaic) cell or solar panel which generates the electricity, the glass which covers and protects the solar panels, the frame which gives rigidity, the backsheet where the cells are laid, the junction box in which the wirings are enclosed and connected, and the encapsulant which may serve as adhesives.
As most people doesn't have usage of equipment in manufacturing solar panel systems, you will need to note and understand those six components to ensure anyone to be able to plan materials required to build a do-it-yourself or home-made solar power.
The type of material needed on how to come up with a solar panel must be available for sale locally or on the web and shouldn't exceed the cost of a whole new cell or doesn't take a long time to build.
1.) PV Cell
Think about consider when building your individual cell will be the solar panel.
Photovoltaic (PV) cell or solar cell converts visible light into electricity. One (1) solar cell however isn't enough to create a usable volume of electricity much like the microbot in Baymax (Hero 6) which only becomes useful when combined as a group. This basic unit generates a DC (direct current) voltage of 0.5 one volt and even though that is reasonable, the voltage is still too small for some applications. To produce a useful DC voltage, the solar cells are connected in series and then encapsulated in modules making the screen. If an individual cell generates 0.5 volt and is also connected to another cell in series, the two cells should then be able to produce 1 volt plus they are able to be known as a module. A standard module usually contains 28 to 36 cells in series. A 28-cell module should be able to produce roughly 14 volts (28 x 0.5 = 14VDC) which can be enough to charge a 12V battery or power 12V devices.
Connecting several solar cells require that you've got a basic comprehension of series and parallel connection which is similar to connecting batteries to generate up an assortment storage system.
There are two most popular cells that are being sold available in the market; a monocrystalline cell as well as a polycrystalline cell. These might have the same size, 156mm x 156mm, but the main difference will be efficiency. It is important to purchase additional cells to serve as backup in case you fail on some of the cells i.e. bad solder, broken cell, scratched, etc.
Monocrystalline solar panels are often black and octagonal fit. This kind of solar panel consists of the very best and purest grade silicon driving them to expensive. But they are the best of all types of cells and are more often than not a choice of solar contractors when space is an important key to look into experienceing the power they would like to attain based on their solar system design.
Polycrystalline Electricity cells are characterized by their bluish color and rectangular. These cells are manufactured inside a much simpler process which lowers the purity of the silicon content as well as lowers the efficiency of the end product.
Generally, monocrystalline cells tend to be efficient than polycrystalline cells however, this does not always mean that monocrystalline cells perform and outputs more power than polycrystalline cells. Solar cell efficiency has connected with how big is cells each screen or cells provide an efficiency rating determined by standard tests whenever they were manufactured. This rating is normally in percentage and the common values range between 15% to 20%.
The glass protects the Electricity cells while allowing optimal sunlight to secure. These are usually manufactured from anti-reflective materials. Tempered glass is the choice of material nowadays for unknown and new manufacturers however, there remain people who utilize flat plate glass on the solar panel systems. Tempered glass are manufactured by chemical or thermal means and is more often than not stronger than plate glass rendering it more expensive to create but the cost of manufacturing them today is reasonable and cost-effective. Flat plate glass creates sharp and long shards when broken as opposed to tempered glass which shatters safely in small pieces upon impact, for this reason in addition they call it safety glass. It ought to be noted here that many amorphous solar power systems uses flat plate glass because of the way the panel is made.
Tempered glass is the thing that manufacturers utilization in mass producing their solar panel systems. Inside our DIY project, we advise to work with Plexiglas also referred to as acrylic glass that's safer than the regular normal glass from your local home improvement store. It's kind of expensive than regular glass but is safe from nature's elements and does not break easily. The Plexiglas can even be screwed or glued easily for the frame.
A frame is normally made of anodized aluminum which offers structure and rigidity on the solar module. These aluminum frames will also be designed to be compatible with most solar mounting systems and grounding equipment for easy and safe installation over a roof or on the ground.
The frame inside a factory-built solar panel is usually the aluminum part where all sides with the cell sheet are inserted. Consider it a skeletal rectangular frame. The solar panel sheet incidentally is made up of the opposite 4 components and they are layered and laminated inside the following order from top to bottom; the tempered glass, top encapsulant, the solar cells, bottom encapsulant, then the backsheet. In our DIY screen, we will be using a wooden frame and also the end-result can be something analogous to a picture frame in which the picture could be the solar panels glued to some non-conductive board, the glass to the Plexiglas top cover, as well as the wooden part because frame and backsheet.
The backsheet could be the layer of plastic film on the back top of the module. This is the only layer protecting the module from unsafe DC voltage. The primary objective of the backsheet is always to insulate and protect the handler from shock and still provide the safest, efficient, and dependable electrical conductivity possible.
The backsheet might be a wooden plywood the place that the frame will probably be screwed ahead and so on the sides. It should be noted here which a perforated hardboard (Pegboard) is going to be used to place and align the Electricity cells and also this Pegboard will take a seat on top of the wooden backsheet and fitted in the wooden frame.
5.) Junction Box
The junction box is how the terminal wires and bypass diodes can be found and concealed. The terminal wires are simply the positive and negative wires depending on the series connections of the Electricity cells and could be connected to another screen, a cost controller, a battery system, in order to an inverter, depending on the system design. The bypass diode is often a protective mechanism that prevent power from getting back to the solar panel if it's not producing electricity such as true if it is nightime.
There are junction boxes made for factory-built solar power panels that are now available to acquire online especially from China. If you're not pressed for time, you can purchase web wait for delivery or maybe you can easily purchase a regular electrical junction box from your local home improvement center. The intention of the junction box would be to protect the terminals (good and bad terminals) from water, dust, along with other elements. This is the location where the two wires (red for positive and black for negative) will probably be originating from. One other end present in wires can also be protected by employing a PV accessory called MC4 which may also be purchased online with the PV junction box.
Encapsulant sheets prevent water and dirt from infiltrating the solar modules and serve as shock-absorbers that protect the PV cells. They have got this adhesive bonding power to the glass, the PV cells, and also the backsheet such as a glue but stronger. Encapsulants are generally made of Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate or EVA and therefore are applied using lamination machines and procedures. Screen manufacturers make use of a vacuum plus a large oven to seal and cure the EVA sheet onto the solar panels. Many people would not have the power to try this but many continue to have tried and failed and some had varying numbers of success.
Encapsulants are thin plastic sheets which are usually laminated at the top and bottom elements of the solar panel sheet. The bottom encapsulant could be the layer in the backsheet where the solar panels have been placed and supported. Within our project, we will instead utilize a latex acrylic paint. This paint won't be put on the pv cells because when attempted, won't cause an equal distribution or putting on the liquid to the surface of the cells that may degrade performance. The paint will probably be put on the wooden frame, wooden backsheet, also to the Pegboard. This Latex Acrylic paint can protect the wooden parts from UV rays which enable it to better resist blistering and cracking overtime. This paint, although water-soluble, can dry quickly and becomes water-resistant.